On environmental issues: Lithium-ion batteries are more environmentally friendly. However, lead-acid batteries have been in use for 150 years, and environmental issues have always existed, but they have been in use. Of course, many restrictions have begun to appear in recent years. Lead-carbon batteries are essentially a new type of lead-acid battery, and lead has environmental problems. Environmental pollution is 100%, and total pollution of lead-acid batteries (lead, lead, acid mist and wastewater) accounts for about 1%, which is not too small, and local areas are far greater than this assessment.
On the issue of cycle life: Of course, the life of lithium batteries is longer, and the life of lead-acid batteries is shorter. Therefore, lithium batteries are expensive to buy and are used cheaply because of the long life.
Self-discharge rate: The self-discharge rate of lithium batteries is much smaller than that of lead-acid batteries. At this point, lead-acid batteries are incomparable.
Type Self-discharge rate / month
Alkaline manganese MnO2/Zn round battery "2 %
Zinc-carbon MnO2/Zn round battery "4%
Lithium-ion lithium MnO2 round battery about 1%
Lithium-ion lithium MnO2 button battery about 1%
Nickel-cadmium battery "35%
NiMH battery "35%
Lead acid battery 20-30%
Voltage platform: 2V for lead-acid batteries and 3.2V to 4.8V for different types of lithium batteries.
Application maturity: Although my lead-acid battery has a long history of application, it can be described as a grandfather. However, the current application of lithium-ion batteries is much higher than that of lead-carbon batteries.
Commodity price: Since lead carbon batteries have not been widely used, the current manufacturing cost is much higher than that of lead-acid batteries, but the cost will be lower if it is manufactured in large quantities. In terms of the comprehensive cost of the application, the difference in the combined use cost of the two batteries is not very different, and the lithium ion battery is more economical.
One-time investment: At present, one-time investment expenditure, lead carbon battery has advantages, such as for electric bicycles, so the price of the whole vehicle is lower than that of lithium batteries. Lead-carbon batteries do not have much advantage in terms of service life.
In short, the two different types of batteries may coexist for a long time, play their respective market advantages, and there will be no incompatibility. There is no contradiction between lead-carbon batteries and lithium-ion batteries.
The main difference between lead carbon battery and lithium battery is seven points:
1. The constituent materials are different: the lithium battery uses carbon material (graphite) as the negative electrode and lithium-containing compound as the positive electrode; the nickel-cadmium battery positive electrode is composed of active materials such as nickel oxide powder and graphite powder, and the negative electrode is composed of cadmium oxide powder and iron oxide powder. The composition of the active substance.
2, the working principle is different: lithium battery is more equivalent to a charge container, basically does not rely on electrochemical reaction when working, when charging the battery, lithium ions are generated on the positive electrode of the battery, and the generated lithium ions move to the negative electrode through the electrolyte . Lithium batteries are basically free of toxic elements and have little impact on the environment, so they are widely used in digital electronic devices. The battery has a small internal resistance and can be adapted to large current discharge, so it can be divided into low-rate, medium-magnification, and high-rate batteries. It is suitable for occasions requiring large power output requirements. When the battery is at high temperature, it is mainly difficult to charge. When the nickel-hydrogen battery is at a higher temperature, the side reaction oxygen evolution reaction will accelerate. If there is good anode performance, the oxygen deposited on the positive electrode can be reduced on the negative electrode. The internal pressure of the battery is eliminated. When 100% fast full charge and discharge is performed at 1C rate, the battery life can reach 500 times or more.
In fact, several developed countries engaged in the development and industrialization of electric vehicles, especially Japan and the United States, mainly use hydrogen-nickel batteries. It refers to a device that converts the chemical energy of the positive and negative active materials into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction. After long-term research and development, chemical batteries have ushered in a wide variety of applications and applications. A large installation that can accommodate as many as a building, as small as a millimeter. Serving us for a better life all the time. Many electrochemical scientists in the world are now focusing on the field of chemical batteries that are powered by electric vehicles. The earliest battery consisted of a glass container filled with electrolyte and two electrodes.
There are still "liquid" batteries. Such as large fixed-type lead-acid batteries as uninterruptible power supplies or lead-acid batteries used with solar cells. The advantage is that the cycle life is long, they can be fully charged and discharged more than 200 times, and some rechargeable batteries have higher load capacity than most disposable batteries. Fuel cell technologies include the appearance of alkaline fuel cells (AFC), phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC), proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), And direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), etc., among which, the fuel cell technology using methanol oxidation reaction as a positive electrode reaction is actively developed by the industry.
Battery symbol: (-)Zn│NH4Cl·ZnCl2│MnO2(+) Total battery reaction: Zn+2NH4Cl+2MnO2=Zn(NH3)2Cl2+2MnO(OH) (2) Zinc-type zinc-manganese battery: also known as high power Zinc-manganese battery, electrolyte is zinc chloride, has good leak-proof performance, high power discharge and high energy density. It is the second generation of zinc-manganese battery. It was first introduced in Germany in the early 1970s. For flashlight illumination, the typical termination voltage is 0.9V, and some radios allow the voltage to drop to 0.75V.