Development Process, Development Prospects And Battery Applications Of Lithium Batteries

- Sep 05, 2018-

A "lithium battery" is a type of battery using a lithium metal or a lithium alloy as a negative electrode material and using a nonaqueous electrolyte solution. Lithium metal batteries were first proposed and studied by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1912. In the 1970s, M. S. WhitTIngham proposed and began researching lithium-ion batteries. Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal are very demanding on the environment. Therefore, lithium batteries have not been used for a long time. With the development of science and technology, lithium batteries have become the mainstream. Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and are rechargeable. The fifth-generation lithium-metal battery of rechargeable batteries was born in 1996, and its safety, specific capacity, self-discharge rate and performance price ratio are better than lithium-ion batteries.


The development process of lithium batteries:

In 1970, Exxon's M.S.WhitTIngham used titanium sulfide as the positive electrode material and lithium metal as the negative electrode material to make the first lithium battery. The positive electrode material of the lithium battery is manganese dioxide or thionyl chloride, and the negative electrode is lithium. After the battery is assembled, the battery has voltage and does not need to be charged. Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion Batteries) are the development of lithium batteries. For example, the button battery used in the previous camera was a lithium battery. The battery can also be charged, but the cycle performance is not good, and lithium crystals are easily formed during the charge and discharge cycle, causing internal short circuit of the battery, so in general, the battery is forbidden to be charged. In 1980, J. Goodenough discovered that lithium cobaltate can be used as a positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

In 1982, R.R. Agarwal and J.R. Selman of the Illinois InsTitute of Technology discovered that lithium ions have the property of being embedded in graphite, which is fast and reversible. At the same time, the lithium battery made of lithium metal has attracted much attention, so people tried to make a rechargeable battery by utilizing the characteristics of lithium ion embedded graphite. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully produced by Bell Labs.

In 1983, M. Thackeray, J. Goodenough et al. found that manganese spinel is an excellent cathode material with low cost, stability and excellent conductivity and lithium guiding properties. The decomposition temperature is high, and the oxidation is much lower than that of lithium cobaltate. Even if short circuit or overcharge occurs, the danger of burning and explosion can be avoided.

In 1989, A. Manthiram and J. Goodenough discovered that a positive electrode with a polymeric anion would produce a higher voltage.

In 1992, Sony Corporation of Japan invented a lithium battery using a carbon material as a negative electrode and a lithium-containing compound as a positive electrode. In the process of charging and discharging, no metal lithium exists, only lithium ions, which is a lithium ion battery. Subsequently, lithium-ion batteries revolutionized the face of consumer electronics. Such a battery using lithium cobaltate as a positive electrode material is still the main power source for portable electronic devices.

In 1996, Padhi and Goodenough discovered that phosphates with olivine structure, such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), are safer than traditional cathode materials, especially high temperature resistance, and overcharge resistance is far superior to traditional lithium ion battery materials. Therefore, it has become the cathode material of the current mainstream high-current discharge power lithium battery.


Throughout the history of battery development, we can see three characteristics of the current development of the world battery industry. First, the rapid development of green batteries, including lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen-nickel batteries, etc.; the second is the conversion of primary batteries to batteries, which is consistent with sustainable Development strategy; Third, the battery is further developing in a small, light and thin direction. Among commercial rechargeable batteries, lithium ion batteries have the highest specific energy, especially polymer lithium ion batteries, which can achieve thinning of rechargeable batteries. It is precisely because lithium-ion batteries have higher volumetric energy and mass than energy, can be charged and pollution-free, and have the three characteristics of the current battery industry development, so there is a rapid growth in developed countries. The development of telecommunications and information markets, especially the large-scale use of mobile phones and notebook computers, has brought market opportunities to lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-ion battery in the lithium-ion battery will gradually replace the liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery with its unique safety advantages, and become the mainstream of lithium-ion batteries. The polymer lithium-ion battery is known as the “21st century battery” and will open up a new era of storage batteries. The development prospects are very optimistic.

In March 2015, Sharp and Professor Tanaka Hyun of Kyoto University jointly developed a lithium-ion battery with a service life of 70 years. The long-lived lithium-ion battery produced in this trial has a volume of 8 cubic centimeters and a charge and discharge of 25,000 times. And Sharp said that after the actual long-life lithium-ion battery is charged and discharged 10,000 times, its performance is still stable.

The development prospects of lithium batteries:

Various materials have been studied in order to develop more excellent varieties. The UAE lithium battery bus (made in the Netherlands) has created an unprecedented product. For example, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries and lithium thionyl chloride batteries are very characteristic. Their positive active materials are also solvents for the electrolyte. This structure only occurs in electrochemical systems that are not aqueous solutions. Therefore, the research of lithium batteries has also promoted the development of electrochemical theory of non-aqueous systems. In addition to the use of various non-aqueous solvents, research on polymer thin film batteries has also been conducted.

Lithium batteries are widely used in energy storage power systems such as hydropower, firepower, wind power and solar power plants, uninterruptible power supplies for post and telecommunications, as well as power tools, electric bicycles, electric motorcycles, electric vehicles, military equipment, aerospace and many other fields.


Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in portable appliances such as laptops, camcorders, and mobile communications due to their unique performance advantages. The large-capacity lithium-ion battery developed has been trialed in electric vehicles and is expected to become one of the main power sources for electric vehicles in the 21st century, and will be used in side satellites, aerospace and energy storage. With the shortage of energy and the pressure on the world's environmental protection. Lithium battery is widely used in the electric vehicle industry, especially the appearance of lithium iron phosphate battery, which promotes the development and application of the lithium battery industry.


The introduction of "Planning" is expected to change the world lithium battery pattern


On April 18th, the State Council discussed and approved the “Energy Conservation and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012~2020)” (hereinafter referred to as “Planning”), which clarified the main strategic orientation of pure electric drive for the transformation of the automobile industry. The plug-in hybrid car has set a target of 500,000 units of pure electric and hybrid vehicles in 2015 and more than 5 million units by 2020.

The introduction of the "Planning" has caused great concern in the workshop. Many experts believe that this move will promote the automotive industry to enter a new round of development period. In addition, it will invisibly outline a huge market for the power battery industry, the core component of energy-saving and new energy vehicles.

According to the statistics of the 2013-2017 China Lithium Battery Industry Production and Sales Demand and Investment Forecast Analysis Report, the market size of finished lithium battery packs in China's new energy vehicles, power grid energy storage, special vehicles, and communication base stations in 2012 was 3.5 billion yuan. This is an increase of 34.6% over the 2.6 billion yuan in 2011. Among them, the application of new energy vehicles accounted for 57%.

Since Apple released smartphones in 2007 and then launched tablet PCs, the world has entered an intelligent era. The strong demand for smartphones and tablets has rapidly boosted the sales of digital lithium batteries, with the largest sales of mobile phone lithium batteries.

In 2012, the rapid adjustment of the product structure of the digital lithium battery industry enabled the sales of soft-packed lithium batteries and cylindrical lithium batteries to increase rapidly, and maintained the growth rate of more than 30%. On the other hand, the market size of aluminum-shell square lithium batteries Rapidly shrinking. The entire digital lithium battery industry is undergoing profound changes. For investors, whether the market trends can be grasped in the change determines the future fate of the company.

Lithium battery application:

With the development of microelectronics technology in the 20th century, the number of miniaturized devices is increasing, and high requirements are placed on power supplies. Lithium batteries have entered a large-scale practical stage.

The earliest applied lithium primary battery was used in pacemakers. Since the self-discharge rate of the lithium sub-battery is extremely low, the discharge voltage is very gentle. It makes it possible to implant the pacemaker into the human body for a long time.

Lithium-manganese batteries generally have a nominal voltage higher than 3.0 volts, and are more suitable for use as integrated circuit power supplies, and are widely used in computers, calculators, and watches.

Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in mobile phones, notebook computers, power tools, electric vehicles, street lamp backup power supplies, navigation lights, and small household appliances. It can be said to be the largest application group.