Basic Knowledge Of Batteries

- Aug 13, 2018-

Differentiated by number of uses

Primary battery: Lost after use, can not repeat users, such as: carbon zinc battery, alkaline battery, mercury battery, lithium battery.

Secondary battery: rechargeable rechargeable users, such as: nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, nickel-metal hydride rechargeable battery, lithium rechargeable battery, lead-acid battery, solar battery.

Distinguish by shape

General cylindrical Example: No. 1 / No. 2 / No. 7, etc., suitable for general electronic goods.

Button shape Example: Mercury battery, suitable for electronic watches, hearing aids, etc.

Square Example: 9V battery, suitable for wireless microphones, toys, etc.

Sheet shape: Solar panels, suitable for computers and outdoor buildings.

Distinguish by use

Industrial use: The factory is used for product in-house builders. It is a specific type or multi-component, such as: power tools, communication batteries, etc.

Consumer use Example: For general consumers, the replacement can be purchased in the market, and the most used one is a cylindrical head battery.

Service life

The battery is a chemical substance and therefore has a certain service life. For example, a dry battery (including a common alkaline battery) cannot be charged once, and the service life is of course only once. For rechargeable batteries, we generally measure the length of service life by the number of times of charging. The cycle life of nickel-cadmium batteries is about 300~700 times, the number of rechargeable nickel-hydrogen batteries is 400~1000 times, and the number of lithium-ion batteries is 500~800 times. The service life of rechargeable batteries is not only affected by factors such as raw materials used in the production of batteries, manufacturing processes, etc., but also closely related to the battery charging and discharging methods and actual use. For example, the six HITACHI nickel-cadmium batteries that someone started using in 1985 have continued to use until now, but the battery capacity has decreased somewhat. It seems that as long as the method of use is reasonable, the rechargeable battery can fully meet or even exceed the nominal service life.


Dry battery carbon-zincdry batteries

Alkaline manganese battery alkaline


Disposable battery (manganese batteries)

Lithium battery

Lead acid battery

Chemical battery


Secondary battery

Nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd) chemical batteries (secondary batteries

Ni-MH battery Ni-MH

Lithium ion battery Li-ion


Other other

Fuel cell

Physical battery

Solar cell solar cellbatteries

Microbial battery

Specific explanation reference:

How many types of batteries are there?

Chemical batteries can be divided into: primary battery (primary battery) and secondary battery (rechargeable battery) lead-acid battery according to the nature of work. Among them: primary battery can be divided into: paste zinc manganese battery, cardboard zinc manganese battery, alkaline zinc manganese battery, button zinc silver battery, button lithium manganese battery, button zinc manganese battery, zinc air battery, primary lithium manganese Battery, etc. Secondary batteries can be classified into: cadmium nickel batteries, hydrogen nickel batteries, lithium ion batteries, secondary alkaline zinc manganese batteries, and the like. Lead-acid batteries can be divided into: open lead-acid batteries, fully enclosed lead-acid batteries.

What is a zinc-manganese dry battery?

Zinc-manganese battery, also known as Leclanche battery, was invented by French scientist Leclanche in 1868. Zinc (Zn) is used as the negative electrode, manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) is used as the positive electrode, and the electrolyte solution is used. An aqueous solution of ammonium chloride (NH 4 C1), zinc oxide (ZnC1 2 ), a surface starch or a layer of paper as a separator is called a zinc-manganese battery, because the electrolyte solution is usually gelatinized or adsorbed. It is also a non-flowing state on other carriers, so it is also called a zinc-manganese dry battery. According to the use of the isolation layer, it is divided into two types: paste type and plate type battery. The plate type is divided into two types according to different electrolyte types: ammonium type and zinc type battery board.

What is an alkaline zinc-manganese battery?

It refers to the development of zinc-manganese batteries based on the zinc-manganese battery in the middle of the 20th century. The battery uses an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the electrolyte solution, and the negative electrode structure opposite to the zinc-manganese battery is used. The negative electrode is a paste-like colloid, and the copper nail is used as a current collector, and the positive electrode is outside. The active material and the conductive material are connected in a ring shape to be connected to the battery case, and the positive and negative electrodes are separated by a dedicated separator.

What parts of the battery are made up of?

Any battery consists of four basic components, the two main components being electrodes, electrolytes, diaphragms and housings of two different materials.

What is a green battery?

Refers to a class of high-performance, non-polluting batteries that have been put into use and under development in recent years, including metal hydride nickel batteries and lithium ion batteries that are currently in use, and mercury-free alkaline zinc-manganese primary batteries and fuels that are being promoted. Batteries, solar cells (photovoltaic cells), etc.

What is a lead-acid battery?

In 1859, Plante, France, found that it consists of five basic parts: a positive electrode plate, a negative electrode plate, an electrolyte, a separator, and a container (battery cell). A battery made of a separator is made of lead dioxide as a positive electrode active material, lead as a negative electrode active material, sulfuric acid as an electrolyte, microporous rubber, sintered polyvinyl chloride, glass fiber, polypropylene, or the like.

What is a nickel-cadmium battery and a metal hydride battery?

Both use nickel oxide or nickel hydroxide as the positive electrode, an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte solution, and metal cadmium or metal hydride as the negative electrode. The metal hydride battery was produced in the late 1980s by an electrochemical reversible invention using a hydrogen absorbing alloy and a hydrogen releasing reaction, and is a leading product of a small secondary battery.

What is a lithium battery?

A battery in which a metal lithium or a lithium compound is used as an active material is generally referred to as a lithium battery, and is classified into a primary lithium battery and a secondary lithium battery.

What is a lithium-ion battery?

It refers to a battery made of a carbon material capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions instead of pure lithium as a negative electrode, a compound of lithium as a positive electrode, and a mixed electrolyte as an electrolyte solution.

What is a fuel cell?

Refers to a device that uses a fuel (such as hydrogen or a hydrogen-containing fuel) and an oxidant (such as pure oxygen or oxygen in the air) to directly connect to the power generation. It has the characteristics of high efficiency, electrochemical reaction conversion efficiency of more than 40%, and non-polluting gas discharge.


The main components in the chemical battery:

What is zinc?

Zinc is an off-white metal with a bluish tint. The symbol Zn, atomic number 30, specific gravity 7.14g/cm 3 , melting point 419.5 degrees Celsius, boiling point 907 degrees Celsius, zinc is widely used in the electroplating industry and manufacturing brass, etc., zinc powder is a reducing agent for reuse in the organic synthesis industry. Zinc exists in the form of sphalerite and smithsonite in nature. Zinc ore often coexists with lead, silver and cadmium to form polymetallic ore.

What is manganese?

Manganese is a widely distributed element in nature, accounting for 0.085% of the weight of the earth's crust. It is mainly in the form of oxides. Manganese is a silver-gray metal, symbol Mn, atomic number 25, atomic weight 54.94, specific gravity 7.4g/cm 3 , melting point 1250 degrees Celsius, is a refractory heavy metal. Manganese is an indispensable raw material for the steelmaking industry and exists mainly in the form of pyrolusite in nature.

What is cadmium?

Cadmium is a silvery white soft metal, symbol Cd, atomic number 48, atomic weight 112.41, density 8.64 g/cm 3 , melting point 320.9 degrees Celsius, boiling point 767.3 degrees Celsius. Cadmium is mainly found in various ores of zinc. It has strong corrosion resistance, low melting point and excellent electrical conductivity. It is widely used in industry.

What is lithium?

Lithium is a silver-white metal, symbol Li, atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.94, lithium is soft, easily oxidized by air and darkened, usually stored in liquid paraffin, which is the lightest and most heat-prone metal. Alloys can be made, and lithium has important applications in the atomic energy industry.

What is mercury?

Mercury is commonly known as "mercury", symbol Hg, atomic weight 200.6, silver-white liquid metal, easy to flow, density 13.546g/cm 3 , melting point 38.89 degrees Celsius boiling point 356.95 degrees Celsius, mercury vapor inhaled into the human body will produce chronic poisoning, mercury used in mercury lamps, etc. Widely used in scientific measuring instruments.

What is nickel?

Nickel is a silver-white metal with the symbol Ni, an atomic weight of 58.69, and a density of 8.902 g/cm 3 . Nickel can be alloyed with many metals, mainly alloyed with iron to make special steel, which is widely used in modern industries.